Most of the current energy demand is met by chemical sources of energy by means of chemical combustion. While the combustion of conventional fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas, leads to several environmental issues-leading to global warming, the reserve for such fossil fuels are getting depleted day-by-day. To preserve the mother earth as well as to utilize the renewable resources, the current energy technologies have to be upgraded to green and clean energy technologies. Any energy technology which involves the use of naturally replenishable sources such as sunlight, wind, tides etc. are called green and clean energy technologies.
India ranks the second largest country in renewable energy production which includes significantly use of solar, biomass, wind and tidal. Compared to the developed counties, the per capita energy consumption in India is still very low, though the energy demand is in increased trend. By the way, India is associated with wealthy inexhaustible energy resources from sun, wind, ocean current and biomass, besides roughly 12% of the world total hard coal reserves, the third-largest in the world, though the deposits are generally of low quality.
India, under National Solar Mission, aimed to produce 100 GW from renewable sources by 2022. Resource augmentation and its use in energy technologies have not been kept in pace to match the increasing energy demand, leaving significant energy shortages in India. Besides solar, wind and biomass, there are quite a few other eco-friendly and renewable sources from which one can tap energy for varied applications. Some of them are chemical sources of energy, hydrogen energy, geothermal energy, alternate fuels for surface transportation. Besides, the energy generation from renewable sources, there is a huge demand for research in energy storage, distribution and management. Efficient energy storage devices like batteries should be made of materials which are lighter, long lasting, rechargeable, durable, inexpensive and easy to make. Similarly distribution of energy from the point of production to the place of use should be efficient without loss and without causing harm to those who handle the devices. Developing Green Energy-production, storage and distribution is the only alternative to meet the challenges of energy future.
Thus, there is an urgent need to carryout in-depth studies and conduct research in Green Energy Science and Technology as well as Nanomaterial Science and Technology at higher level utilizing the expertise available in India and abroad. Also, the aimed human resources in green energy technologies are indispensable to meet the growing renewable energy industries. It is under this context, the Madanjeet School of Green Energy Technologies has been established with two composite units, namely, Centre for Green Energy Technology and Centre for Nano Sciences and Technology.
Currently, the following active and applied research works are being carried out going in the School: Solar cells including dye- and quantum-dot sensitized solar cells, solar thermal energy devices, bio-mass and bioenergy from wastes, fuel cells including solid oxide fuel cells, biofuel cells/microbial fuel cells, lithium- and sodium-ion batteries, supercapacitors including lithium-ion capacitors, hybrid energy-storage devices, biomaterials for environmental and health, thin film devices etc. A significant work is being carried out using polymers and nanocomposite materials for energy conversion as well as storage.